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World Global

What if global warming isn't as severe as predicted?

16 DAYS AGO
What if global warming isn't as severe as predicted?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated in their most recent report that global surface temperature at the end of this century will probably be between 1.8 and 4 degrees Celsius warmer than it was at the end of the last century.

It's natural to question whether we and future generation...

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“Ukraine is not the new Yugoslavia”

5 DAYS AGO
“Ukraine is not the new Yugoslavia”

"The Ukrainian crisis was produced by the West and there can be no comparison with the 1990s Yugoslavia", said Bosnian writer and journalist Zlatko Dizdarevic who also explained the changed role of the former Yugoslavia.

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Serbia finally recognizes Kosovo passports

4 DAYS AGO
Serbia finally recognizes Kosovo passports

Kosovo continues to enjoy its independence, but still faces many obstacles as a country seeking its own place in the world community, that it has to pass. One of them was the issue of own passport and its recognition by some of its key neighbors, until now.

The most important Kosovo's neighbor, the...

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Economy

Romania Cuts Rates For Third Month; Lowers Reserve Requirement

16 DAYS AGO
Romania Cuts Rates For Third Month; Lowers Reserve Requirement

Romania's central bank on Tuesday reduced interest rates for the third consecutive session to a new low and lowered reserve requirements for foreign currency liabilities, as inflation remains low.

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Russian news agency to open Balkan center also

28 DAYS AGO
Russian news agency to open Balkan center also

After the recent visit to the region in search of the possibility to invest in information business by the former CIA director, David Petrus, now Russia announces it is coming to the Balkan region as well. The Russian international news news agency "Russia Today" (MIA Rossiya Segodnya) announced tha...

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Kuwait tries to play down oilfield dispute with Saudi Arabia

21 DAYS AGO
Kuwait tries to play down oilfield dispute with Saudi Arabia

Kuwait has played down a row with Saudi Arabia over its decision to halt production at an offshore oilfield jointly operated by the two Gulf neighbours.

Oil Minister Ali al-Omair said the dispute over operations at the Khafji field would not affect strong ties.

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Bulletin Board

German Journalist: ‘German politicians are US puppets’

7 DAYS AGO
German Journalist: ‘German politicians are US puppets’

"Now the Americans are even considering blowing up a nuclear power plant in Ukraine and then insisting that the culprits were either separatists or Russians," claims the German journalist Udo Ulfkotte, former correspondent from Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, one of the largest German newspapers. He...

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Balkans diplomacy at a standstill: between Kremlin and the EU

2 MONTHS AGO
Balkans diplomacy at a standstill: between Kremlin and the EU

The Balkans are now, more than ever, regarded half-way between East and West- and not only geographically.

What may initially seem old Cold War rhetoric, it actually has elements of diplomacy and geopolitics that might shape the region short term future.

The delicate balance that many Balkan count...

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Erdogan says Muslims 'discovered America' and hopes for a mosque in Cuba

6 DAYS AGO
Erdogan says Muslims 'discovered America' and hopes for a  mosque in Cuba

Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan says the Muslim faith was widespread in America before the arrival of Columbus in the 15th century, and desires to errect a big mosque in Havana, once the city's grants a building permit.

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Special Interest

Education through Islamic History

20 DAYS AGO
Education through Islamic History

From the very earliest days of Islam, the issue of education has been at the forefront at the minds of the Muslims. The very first word of the Quran that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was, in fact, "Read".

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) once stated that "Seeking knowledge is mandatory for all Mu...

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Montenegrin Church and Religion

9 MONTHS AGO
Montenegrin Church  and Religion

In the area of present-day Montenegro (formerly the Roman province of Praevalitane), Christianity started to put down roots early. The first episcopacy was formed in the fourth century when the native populace consisted of Romans and Romanized Ilirs. (See "Iz Povijesti Hriscanskih Crkava u Crno...

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Jewish scholar lectured on 'How Islam Saved the Jews'

6 MONTHS AGO
Jewish scholar lectured on 'How Islam Saved the Jews'

David J. Wasserstein, a professor of Jewish History at Vanderbilt University, lectured on "How Islam Saved the Jews" on Thursday, April 24, at the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

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Health

Fatness, Leptin and Leptin Resistance: Everything You Need to Know!

20 DAYS AGO
Fatness, Leptin and Leptin Resistance: Everything You Need to Know!

Many people falsely believe that weight gain (and loss) is all about calories and willpower.

However, modern obesity research disagrees... and scientists are increasingly pointing their fingers at a hormone called leptin.

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Cinnamon, Ginger and Onions Strongly Protect Us from Colds and Flu

10 MONTHS AGO
Cinnamon, Ginger and Onions Strongly Protect Us from Colds and Flu

In the fall as the weather gets cooler ailments tend to affect our Lungs in the form of coughs, sinus issues, colds and flu. In Traditional Chinese Medicine autumn relates to the metal element which corresponds to the Lungs. The taste that strengthens the Lungs is pungent: the spicy flavor of f...

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Puberty Before Age 10: A New ‘Normal’?

1 YEAR AGO
Puberty Before Age 10: A New ‘Normal’?

One day last year when her daughter, Ainsley, was 9, Tracee Sioux pulled her out of her elementary school in Fort Collins, Colo., and drove her an hour south, to Longmont, in hopes of finding a satisfying reason that Ainsley began growing pubic hair at age 6. Ainsley was the tallest child in her thi...

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Life and Style

Western IQs dropped 14 points over last century, researchers say

1 YEAR AGO
Western IQs dropped 14 points over last century, researchers say

A new study from researchers in Europe claims that the average IQ in Western nations dropped by a staggering 14.1 points over the past century.

"We tested the hypothesis that the Victorians were cleverer than modern populations using high-quality instruments, namely measures of simple visual re...

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Marriage is not a Bed of Roses, Marriage is a Responsibility from day one!

1 YEAR AGO
Marriage is not a Bed of Roses, Marriage is a Responsibility from day one!

Many people take the institution of Marriage as a Tradition and a family norm to get married, however, marriage is not just a symbol of getting authority with the community or family but a responsibility which has actually no equal.

Marriage is not a Bed of Roses as most people may tend to feel or t...

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The Sunnah Beard: the latest trend amongst non-Muslims in Philadelphia USA

5 MONTHS AGO
The Sunnah Beard: the latest trend amongst non-Muslims in Philadelphia USA

There's not a woman in Philly who would rock a burka just to make a fashion statement.

But when it comes to Muslim-inspired menswear, well, that's another story. Regardless of their religious affiliations, certain Philadelphia men, mainly African-Americans, have adopted the style of wearing lon...

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Technology

The Arabic Automata

15 DAYS AGO
The Arabic Automata

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the end of 5th century, the western and central part of Europe was swept down by many barbarian tribes and fall into so called Dark Ages for some five centuries. During this time, the centers of world's art and science moved to the east—to the eastern Ro...

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Honeybees trained to find Balkan land mines

1 YEAR AGO
Honeybees trained to find Balkan land mines

Mirjana Filipovic is still haunted by the land mine blast that killed her boyfriend and blew off her left leg while on a fishing trip nearly a decade ago. It happened in a field that was supposedly de-mined.{cmp_comments idkey='1481c'[url=http://www.balkanchronicle.com/index.php/tech%...

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Dire warning: Due to massive solar flare storm you could lose power, communications

2 YEARS AGO
Dire warning: Due to massive solar flare storm you could lose power, communications

The largest solar storm since 2005 is now in progress, causing fluctuations on the power grid and disruptions to the Global Positioning System. The ongoing strong proton storm is in full fury. And it's getting stronger; a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) impact also impacting us, traveling at 1,400 miles...

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Pomaks, the Slavic people of the Muslim faith – History and modernity

PomakWomen

Slavic Muslim representation in the Balkans is not confined to Bosnians only, so loudly had become propagated in the early 90’s. of the last century. For several centuries the territory of Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey inhabits the other Slavic peoples of Muslim faith, calling themselves ahryane and outside the society known as Pomaks.

Modern Pomaks live mostly in southern and south-eastern Bulgaria – mainly in the Rhodope Mountains, south of Plovdiv, and in Pirinski Macedonia. A large number of Pomaks live in the neighboring regions of Greece, especially in the rooms of Xanthi (Western Thrace). Most of the communities in Turkey, assimilated, no longer slave language and cultural backgrounds, and joined in the Turkish ethnic group.

As a Muslim, Pomaks preserved slave language (which experts consider a model of “pure” Bulgarian), culture and traditions.

The origin of this ethnic community, as well as its history of relatively early (before mid 19 th century) is poorly understood.

In fact, each country has its own accommodation Pomaks “easy” concept of their origin.

So, according to Bulgarian historians Pomaks – it Islamicize Bulgarians have kept the Bulgarian culture in its purest form. This conclusion is based on the similarity of the Bulgarian language and dialects used by Pomaks. Proponents of this view believe that the word “Pomaks comes from Turkish” pomogats – Assistant or Bulgarian “pomohamedantsy” – that is Islamicize. The name “ahryane” is interpreted as derived from the Bulgarian “agaryane” – that is incorrect or later – Muslim. This concept is considered the most reliable, and it is in accordance with the modern science includes Pomaks to Slavs.

More original point of view of Greek authors, who believe that people descended from the ancient Thracian tribes who inhabited data area. Based on this theory, they note “vital” affinity Pomaks with the Greeks, which, however, does not have any serious evidence.

Turkish scholars, in turn focus religious community Pomaks Turks, linking it with the common origin. In their version, Pomaks – descendants of Turkic tribes settled Thrace before the Ottoman conquest – Accidents and Pechenegs. The name “ahryane” Turks feel derived from the Arabic “Ahi” – a brother.

The first question of the origin of Pomaks was raised in 1762 Paisii Hilendarskim in his “History of slavyanobolgarskoy”.

Forced Islamization or “baptism” dead

It is believed that Islamization Pomaks started with Sultan Bayazide, the 70-ies. fourteenth century.

Bulgarian historiography traditionally puts forward the thesis of its violent nature. For example, one of the most famous Bulgarian historian Nikolai Todorov shows that two waves of forced Islamization – when Sultan Selim II – in the 16 st century, and Mehmet Fourth – at the end of the 17 th. However, this concept does not stand up to serious scientific criticism – firstly, the main source Todorova was some Bulgarian chronicle of the 18 th century, which he himself had not even been able to quote in his study. The second source, which is based on the concept, is a chronicle of the Bulgarian priest Draganov, written, according to Todorova, ‘a little after the events referred to. ” At the same time, scientists have recognized that the original Chronicle was lost, and it is available only in the compilation of Stephen Zahareva. For now, however, proved that this – fake, what came almost all the major European specialists on the history of the Ottoman empire and Bulgaria.

However, the Bulgarian scientists, especially during the rule of the Communists, were so are the desire to prove his “point” that does not hesitate to open frauds. For example, in the 1980’s the city of Smolyan History Museum organized archaeological expedition to find the graves of the villages in pomakskih Christians who supposedly chose to die conversion to Islam. When they were not found, the head of the expedition ordered to put crosses in the Muslim graves in the “proof” that “initially they were Christian.” This information was provided by the village mayor pomakskogo Smilyan, historian Boryanoy Panayotov.

Attempted Statehood

As a Muslim, Pomaks serve as a reliable pillar of Turkish domination in the Balkans. They provide the finest soldiers the Sultan, and even gifted pashey, participated in the repression of the Greek insurrection in 1821, supported by Turkey during the recent uprising of the Bulgarian and Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Pomaks are not even subject to some time to the Berlin Congress, the associated part of the territory they live in Eastern Rumeli and expressed loyalty to Turkey during the Greco-Turkish war in 1897

In 1878 Pomaks fought for autonomy for the ethnic community, which is de facto and there in the next few years, in twenty communities in the Rhodope Mountains.

In 1913, after departing from pomakskih territories Bulgarian and Turkish armies (during the Balkan wars), there was formed Gyumyurdzhinskaya republic existed, however, only a few months. However, during this time Pomaks those who were forcibly converted to Christianity by Bulgarian troops again returned to the true faith.

After the First World War, in 1918, 8 pomakskih Bulgarian parliament deputies were forced to appeal to the leaders of Greece and France to protect of their ethnic and religious minority from the forced Christianization.

Actually, if the question of whether Islamicize ahryane force, modern science tends to give a negative answer, then attempted forcible Christianization recorded clearly and indisputably.

Forcible Christianization

All of these “campaigns” were four – in 1912, 1938 – 1944, 1962 – 1964, 1971 – 1972 biennium. and all of them were Bulgarian Government. The most brutal and blatant was the last attempt to “integrate” Pomaks. Help was called upon the army, military police, special services, territorial formation. And all this – with a rather innocuous at first glance, the goal – to change Turkish names to Bulgarian ahryan.

But in fact it was a real attempt, perhaps, one of the last organized campaigns of its kind in the world, forced to draw the entire nation to Christianity.

But, despite everything, Pomaks not broken. Is still unknown how many were killed and tortured for refusing to change Muslim names to Christian. In addition, several hundred people were sent to the infamous prison in Belém do Pará island on the Danube.

However, in 1989, together with the collapse of socialist governments, there fell, and that the planned “modern inquisitor.” Virtually the entire population with the change of name changed to the old.

Now Pomaks is one of three Muslim nations of Bulgaria, two others – Muslims, Gypsies and Turks. In recent years, emerging trends to increase the influence of the Slavic community is among the Bulgarian Muslim Ummah.

Pomaks in Greece

On the territory of Greece are far less Pomaks than in Bulgaria – only about 30 thousand people, while the overall strength of the ethnic community – 500 thousand people. Their residence in Greek Thrace was enshrined the Lausanne Treaty. Pomaks not want, like a huge number of ethnic Turks to go to Turkey because they were irreconcilable enemies sekulyaristskogo kemalistskogo regime. In many ways their situation affected the victory of Communists in Bulgaria in 1944. The point is that in Greece Pomaks soon became seen as potential supporters of the Bulgarian Communists. Therefore, policies on them was carried out on two vectors.

First – isolation pomakskih settlements. Up until the early 90’s, entry to and exit from there only on special permission of local administration.

The second – the desire to merge with the Slavic Muslim Turks. In fact, in Greece at the state level was found to only one ethnic and religious minorities – Turks. In it, except Pomaks, “joined” Gypsies, Muslims and black Muslims in a very small number of residents in Greece.

Pomaks have been isolated not only from all sides (including from their Bulgarian brothers, as well as the border with the socialist camp had been “at the Castle”), but also deprived of education and even raise children in their mother tongue. They had to send their children to Turkish schools and, sometimes, because of their lack of – and in Turkey itself. Subsequently, among Pomaks a sufficiently large number of supporters of a merger with the Turks, the perception of culture and language of the past.

Some mitigation of the situation of Greek Pomaks can be observed only in recent years due to liberalization of the political regime , end the cold war and the collapse of the socialist camp. In 1994, for the Slavic Muslim countries have been partially lifted restrictions on movement, as in the 1995-m – opened the Greek-Bulgarian border.

Pomaks in Turkey

Turkey Pomaks traditionally inhabited the area around Edirne, and some villages up to the Istanbul, finding themselves in the Turkish area, quickly assimilated and became part of Turkish ethnicity. Generally, pomakskie roots are about 300 thousands of modern Turkish. At the same time in 1965, according to the census of the Turkish, Bulgarian possessed only about 27 thousand inhabitants. At present, this number and is close to zero.

History Pomaks eloquently shows that the Slavs are not only able to accept the Muslim religion, but on the basis of religious community form a common ethnicity. Thus, we can safely conclude that the Bosnian case in this regard is not isolated and therefore exclusive. Living in a much more complex than the Bosnians, and, unlike them, not the creation of their own statehood, Pomaks demonstrated incredible force of faith, Pronya to Islam through all the tests, harassment adversaries, and struggling to regain its natural and inalienable rights – civil and religious.

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BOOK OF THE MONTH Zomia-women

The Art of Not Being Governed

The focus on Zomia is driven by the fact that the region is the largest remaining area that has not been integrated into a nation state. Indeed, for over two thousand years, the people living in the highlands of Zomia have lived outside the reach of the lowland government. The standard view of these "hill people" is that they are remnants of the pre-state period and represent a primitive form of living. Although book is focused on Zomia, it should be noted that governments and those involved in international development efforts tend to hold a similar view towards those living outside the reach of the state in other settings as well. Indeed, this view underpins the efforts to 'fix' the various institutions in societies around the world in the hope of bringing modernity to people who are viewed as primitive.

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